On Ubuntu, building the Boost library from source can be tricky at times. So, I thought of putting an article together to help someone trying the figure out the same. So, on your Ubuntu machine once you have downloaded the Boost source files (here), you can follow the following steps to build it (I have picked boost_1_54_0.tar.gz for demonstration) :
- Unzip and change into the boost source directory.
tar -xf boost_1_54_0.tar.gz && cd boost_1_54_0
- Run bootstrap.sh, this will generate the necessary config files and “b2” (the build tool).
- Run b2 to build & install all (or desired) boost libraries (refer “./b2 –help” for explanation on individual options used):
./b2 --build-type=complete --layout=versioned --prefix=./install -q install
That’s all! The build (build-type=complete) would take a while to finish, so be patient. Also, the statndard Ubuntu installation might not have some headers required for the complete build. In my case, installing the following 2 packacges was sufficient :
A more detailed set of instructions can be found here.
Sometimes we forget to close file handles which are no longer required in the program. This might eventually eat up some useful resources like open file count, memory, etc. Valgrind does magic at checking a variety of such leakages. All you need is run the program under Valgrind with –track-fds option. Here is the output of a simple C program, executed under Valgrind, which opens a file handle but doesn’t close it.
$ gcc -Wall -g -o fopen fopen.c
$ valgrind --tool=memcheck --leak-check=full --track-fds=yes ./fopen
==2771== Memcheck, a memory error detector
==2771== Copyright (C) 2002-2011, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.
==2771== Using Valgrind-3.7.0 and LibVEX; rerun with -h for copyright info
==2771== Command: ./fopen
File opened successfully
==2771== FILE DESCRIPTORS: 4 open at exit.
==2771== Open file descriptor 3: /tmp/fl
==2771== at 0x4125F73: __open_nocancel (syscall-template.S:82)
==2771== by 0x40B9ACB: _IO_file_open (fileops.c:233)
==2771== by 0x40B9C87: _IO_file_fopen@@GLIBC_2.1 (fileops.c:338)
==2771== by 0x40ADD86: __fopen_internal (iofopen.c:93)
==2771== by 0x80484F7: main (fopen.c:23)
==2771== Open file descriptor 2: /dev/pts/0
==2771== Open file descriptor 1: /dev/pts/0
==2771== Open file descriptor 0: /dev/pts/0
==2771== HEAP SUMMARY:
==2771== in use at exit: 352 bytes in 1 blocks
==2771== total heap usage: 1 allocs, 0 frees, 352 bytes allocated
==2771== LEAK SUMMARY:
==2771== definitely lost: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==2771== indirectly lost: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==2771== possibly lost: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==2771== still reachable: 352 bytes in 1 blocks
==2771== suppressed: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==2771== Reachable blocks (those to which a pointer was found) are not shown.
==2771== To see them, rerun with: --leak-check=full --show-reachable=yes
==2771== For counts of detected and suppressed errors, rerun with: -v
==2771== ERROR SUMMARY: 0 errors from 0 contexts (suppressed: 0 from 0)
As you can see, at the end Valgrind prints a list of all open file descriptors and stack trace showing where the file was opened.